Village-Agios-kirikos-ikariaWe can learn a lot about improving quality of life in our golden years—and maybe even increase longevity—by studying the habits of the world’s longest-lived people.

Where in the world do people live the longest? Though we in the U.S. tend to think we own good health and longevity, the truth might surprise you—the small, remote island of Okinawa, Japan is where you’ll find the world’s largest population of healthy older adults. In fact, of the five locales scientists are studying for their longevity secrets, three are islands, one is a peninsula, and one is simply a spiritual oasis. Researcher Dan Buettner, who studies them for the National Geographic Society, calls these long-lived pockets Blue Zones.

The top five Blue Zones may be relatively isolated and scattered around the globe, but here’s what they have in common, according to the New York Times: a cultural environment that reinforces a wide range of healthy lifestyle habits, from diet and exercise to social relationships and psychological well-being. People garden. They have a cooperative spirit. Public health is easily accessible. And, last but not least, senior citizens are valued as members of their family and the community. Read on to find out more about what these places are doing right.

Where People Live the Longest Around the World

1. Okinawa, Japan

In Okinawa—an archipelago 360 miles off the coast of Japan—you’ll find the world’s highest prevalence of proven centenarians: 740 out of a population of 1.3 million (Okinawa Centenarian Study). Okinawan seniors not only have the highest life expectancy in the world, but also the highest health expectancy: they remain vigorous and healthy into old age, suffering relatively few age-related ailments.

Secrets of Longevity: Widespread gardening provides an opportunity for exercise, sunlight and nutritious food, and Okinawans follow an old adage that says “eat until you are 80% full” instead of gorging. They also have a sense of purpose, a positive outlook on life and close social support groups called moais.

2. Sardinia, Italy

Sardinia is an island 120 miles off the coast of Italy where the men—mostly farmers and shepherds—are particularly long-lived. In fact, just one town of 1,700 people, Ovodda, boasts 5 centenarians (BBC News).

Secrets of Longevity: Although part of the reason for Sardinia’s longevity may be genetic, they also have the opportunity to follow that healthy Mediterranean diet, as well as consuming lots of goats’ milk and cheese. They walk a lot, but they also take time for leisure, and maintain a positive attitude and sense of humor about life.

3. Loma Linda, California

60 miles east of Los Angeles, Loma Linda is a community that includes about 9,000 Seventh-Day Adventists—a religious group that is significantly longer-lived than the average American. Adventist culture is focused on healthful habits such as vegetarianism, and warns against alcohol and smoking.

Secrets of Longevity:  Besides the healthful habits integral to their belief system, Adventists eat lots of nuts, drink plenty of water, exercise regularly, and tend to maintain a healthy weight. They nurture emotional and spiritual health, value their family relationships, and prize volunteering.

4. Nicoya, Costa Rica

The remote Nicoya peninsula has an inland community in which middle-age mortality is surprisingly low: a man at age 60 has about twice the chance of reaching age 90 than a man living in the U.S. (Blue Zones). They also have the lowest rates of cancer in Costa Rica.

Secrets of Longevity: Their plan de vida or sense of purpose in life encourages a lifestyle that is physically active, with plenty of time outdoors as well as time spent on family and spirituality. They sleep 8 hours. And their diet includes not only nutrient-rich foods like colorful fruit, beans, rice, and corn, but also water that’s naturally high in calcium and magnesium.

5. Ikaria, Greece

Ikaria is a Greek island 35 miles off the coast of Turkey. Like Nicoya, they’ve got a lot of nonagenarians: people there are three times more likely to reach 90 than Americans are. According to the Blue Zones website, “Chronic diseases are a rarity in Ikaria. People living in this region have 20% less cancer, half the rate of cardiovascular disease, and almost no dementia!”

Secrets of Longevity: Boasting a mineral hot springs, Ikaria has been a health destination for centuries. Its residents stay active through walking, farming and fishing, but they also make sure to take time out to nap and socialize. In addition to their Mediterranean diet, they eat a lot of wild greens and drink an herbal tea that’s full of nutrients. Their community lifestyle also encourages good health habits and regular social engagement.

More Locations of the Long-Lived

A few more fun facts about where people live the longest: First, the five U.S. states with the highest life expectancy at birth are, in descending order, Hawaii, Minnesota, North Dakota, Connecticut, and Utah (CDC). As for entire countries with the highest life expectancy at birth, the top five are Monaco, Macau, Japan, Singapore, and San Marino (CIA World Factbook).

Longevity Myths Debunked

According to the researchers for Blue Zones and the Okinawa Centenarian Study, a handful of places that previously claimed to be exceptionally long-lived have since been proven not to be so—among them the former Soviet state of Georgia, the valley of Vicalbamba in Ecuador, and the Hunza Valley in Pakistan. Researchers found that age exaggeration is common, and many people simply do not know their ages for certain. Not only that, birth records aren’t always tracked. By contrast, in the truly long-lived society of Okinawa, there is a family registry dating back to 1879.

One other thing the longest-lived societies tend to have in common: they have limited or no consumption of refined sugar and other processed foods. But with increased globalization, this is changing, and the food environment is becoming more Americanized in all of these once-remote places. This is already having an effect on their health and longevity—for the worse.

What do you think is the secret to these societies’ success with health and longevity? Do you think Americans should change some of our habits to match? Let us know in the comments.